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## Electromobility Part II

In the second part of our brochure about electromobility, we want to focus our attention on the most popular electric car models. In doing so, we take a closer look at the technical data and the charging time of the cars, as these facts are the most important from the buyer's point of view. This brochure also examines the development of the electric car market in important markets such as Germany, France, Norway and the USA.

The top electric cars and their technical data

The chart below shows the five most common newly registered electric cars in Germany for July 2019 (blue). It also shows the number of new registrations of these electric cars for the period from January to July 2019 (orange).

The VW e-Golf is, with 1.007 new registrations, number 1 among the top new registrations of electric cars in Germany for July 2019. More than three and a half thousand (3,687) vehicles of this type were registered throughout 2019 (January to July 2019). But what exactly distinguishes the VW e-Golf?

The purchase of the VW e-Golf is possible from about 31,900€ (new price). Its battery capacity is 35.8 kWh. With 136 hp it reaches a top speed of 150 km/h. In addition, the VW e-Golf delivers its maximum torque from the very first rotation.

Thanks to its single speed transmission, it accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h without interruption in 9.6 seconds. The e-Golf is an ideal vehicle especially in city traffic. But it is also ideal for longer distances. Its maximum range according to WLTP is 233 km. WLTP is a measurement method for determining the exhaust emissions and fuel/electricity consumption of motor vehicles. Further information about this method can be found in our blog "Neuer Normverbrauchstest WLTP löst NEFZ ab” on our homepage. But back to the maximum range of the VW e-Golf. Focus online names a realistic maximum range of 200 km after some test drives. Of course, the maximum range depends on many different factors, such as driving behaviour or weather conditions. As per eFahrer.com the consumption according to WLTP is 15.8 kWh/100 km. Volkswagen itself indicates a combined power consumption of 12.9 to 13.8 kWh/100 km. It should also be mentioned here that consumption also depends on various factors.

###### Figure 1: Number of top new registrations of e-cars in Germany

There are several ways to charge the VW e-Golf. One possibility is to charge the VW e-Golf via a standard household socket. The charging time for 100% charging is approximately 17 hours. A significantly shorter charging time is possible by the installation of the optimally available AC wall box on a house connection with at least 32A. Here the charging time is about 5 hours and 20 minutes. Charging with public AC charging stations also takes about the same time (approx. six hours). However, the fastest charging time is provided by the public charging stations with direct current, which has an optimal CCS rapid charging system and a charging time of approximately 45 minutes to charge the battery up to 80%.

In July 2019, the BMW i3 took second place among the top new registrations with 967 registrations. The BMW i3 is available in two different versions. The BMW i3 (120 Ah) version can be purchased for at least 38,000€ (new price). This BMW model has a battery capacity of 37.9 kWh. Its motor power is 170 hp and according to BMW range measurements in everyday operation with city driving profile, 20 degrees Celsius outside temperature, pre-temperature and comfort driving mode, BMW specifies a maximum range of up to 260 km. The maximum speed is 150 km/h. In addition, the BMW i3 accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 7.3 seconds. Consumption according to WLTP is 13.1 to 13.6 kwh/100km.

Another variant is the BMW i3s. This car is a little bit more expensive than the previously mentioned BMW i3. Its price is at least 41,600€. But the BMW i3s offers with 184 hp a higher performance and with 160 km/h a higher top speed. The acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h is 6.9 seconds. The consumption according to WLTP is approximately 14.0 to 14.6 kwh/100 km.

Both mentioned BMW models can be charged with the new BMW i Wallbox, the BMW i Wallbox Plus and the BMW i Wallbox Connect. Charging from the BMW i Wallbox at home takes approximately 1.5 hours for a range of 100 km. A time of around four hours and fifteen minutes is required to charge the car 100% and around three hours and fifteen minutes to charge the battery up to 80%. In addition, the BMW i3 can be recharged up to 80% in about 15 hours at any standard 230-volt household socket. DC charging stations enable faster charging times when on the move. The BMW i3 can be charged with up to 50 kW at DC charging stations. With a charging time of approximately 1.5 hours, the BMW i3 can be fully charged. The BMW i3 can be charge up to 80% in approximately 45 minutes. An AC charging station with a maximum output/power of 11 kW takes about three hours to charge 80% and about four hours and 20 minutes to fully charge the battery. However, all these values are approximate and may differ from the actual values.

Another popular electric car in Germany is the Renault Zoe. For July 2019 it occupies the 3rd place among the top new registrations of electric cars in Germany. In this period the Renault Zoe can show 910 new registrations. The high acceptance of the car becomes clearer when looking at the number of new registrations in Germany from January to July 2019. During this period, Renault Zoe has a total of 6,461 new registrations. Overall, the Zoe is even the number one among Europe's electric cars (160,000 cars sold since 2010). But let's take a closer look at the special features of this electric car.

The Renault Zoe is available in three different versions. One of them is the Renault Zoe Life. It costs about 21.900€ (new price) and has a 22 kWh battery and an electric motor R90. With 88 hp and a maximum speed of 135 km/h, the maximum range according to WLTP is 175 km. The combined power consumption is between 15.9 and 17.9 kWh/100 km. This Renault Zoe Life variant accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 13.2 seconds.

The Renault Zoe Life Z.E 40 has a battery capacity of 41 kWh. The price for this model is at least 26,100€. Compared to the Zoe Life model, this model has a higher power with 92 hp. The top speed is also 135 km/h. The maximum range of 316 km (according to WLTP) is much higher than that of the Renault Zoe Life. The Renault Zoe Life Z.E. 40 accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 13.2 seconds. According to efahrer.chip.de this Renault Zoe variant consumes 14 kWh/100 km in the city (test result). Renault itself gives a general combined power consumption of 15.9 - 16.9 kWh/100 km.

The Renault Zoe Life Limited model is the only one of the three models which are fitted with the R110 electric motor. This gives it a higher power (108 hp) and a shorter acceleration time (11.4 seconds). The top speed is still 135 km/h. The Zoe Life Limited achieves a maximum range of 316 km. The battery capacity is 41 kWh and the combined power consumption is 16.3 to 17.5 kWh/100 km. The price of this model is at least 27,900€.

In contrast to all other manufacturers, Renault relies on pure alternating current charging. This limits the charging power but does not pose any other problem, as the Zoe is not intended to be a motorway car. Instead, the Renault Zoe is the ideal city car. DC fast charging, on the other hand, is intended primarily for the interim charging on motorways. At the type 2 chargers, which can be found in the cities, the Zoe charges with 22 kW. An empty battery can be completely recharged within about 2 hours and 30 minutes (battery capacity 41 kWh). For the smaller 22 kWh battery, it takes about 1.5 hours. According to charging mode 3, so the AC charging at special charging stations with up to 32 A and 400 V AC 3-phase, the battery charges up to 80% within approximately one hour. With the 41 kWh battery, the charging process takes about one hour and 40 minutes. For 100%, charging takes 105 minutes and 160 minutes. Overall, the Renault Zoe is a rather cheaper electric car (compared to other electric cars). It is also a perfect car for the city, but less practical for the motorway.

Since October 2019, however, the Renault Zoe models have been available in revised, more powerful versions but we will not look at the individual performance values and facts of the models in this brochure.

The Audi e-tron took 4th place among the most frequently newly registered electric cars in Germany in July 2019 with 530 new registrations. In the period from January to July 2019, a total of 2,312 Audi e-trons were newly registered in Germany. It is also Audi's first all-electric car.

The Audi e-tron 55 Quattro is a much more expensive version of an electric car. The price of this model is at least 80,900€. This electric car has the all-wheel-drive Quattro. In terms of driving performance, the vehicle can show remarkable values. With 408 hp and a top speed of 200 km/h, its acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h is 6.6 seconds. The Audi e-tron 55 Quattro can also boast impressive values with the maximum electrical range according to WLTP. Audi indicates a value of 356 - 411 km. The combined consumption is between 22.9 and 26.4 kWh/100km. Efahrer.com mentions a consumption on the motorway of over 25 kWh/100km at a speed of about 130 km/h, for example. Under these conditions, the Audi e-tron Quattro achieves a range of approximately 340 km. However, the figures also vary here due to different factors, such as the driving style, etc.

Just like the other models already presented, the Audi e-tron can be charged from home or on the road. The Audi e-tron can be charged up to 100% from home, for example at an industrial socket with an 11kW charging power, within approximately 9 hours. Charging with a household socket and a charging capacity of 2.3 kW takes a much longer time. Audi gives a value of just under 47 hours here. In public, the electric car can be fully charged in about 48 minutes at a DC charging station and a 150 kW charging capacity. Charging at a charging station with Mode 3 cable (AC) and a charging capacity of 11 kW takes about 9 hours. The Audi e-tron is also the first car that has a CCS direct-current charging connection. The CCS direct-current charging connection is the European fast-charging standard with 150 kW. This enables a range of 200 km with a charging time of approximately 20 minutes.

The Tesla Model 3 is at 5th place among the top new registrations in July 2019 with 454 new registrations in Germany. In the period from January to July 2019, this model from Tesla had 5,806 new registrations in Germany. The Tesla Model 3 can be divided into three different models. The Tesla Model 3 Maximum Range Model and the Tesla Model 3 Performance Model are marked by their four-wheel drive with a dual motor. The Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus model, on the other hand, is powered by a rear-wheel drive. This model costs at least 43,390€ and has 260 hp. In addition, the vehicle reaches a top speed of 225 km/h and it accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 5.6 seconds. The battery capacity is 50 kWh and its maximum range according to WLTP is 409 km. Thus, the Tesla Model 3 in the standard range plus variant can show a higher range in comparison to other electric cars.

Slightly more expensive than this model is the Tesla Model 3 in the Maximum Range variant. This model costs at least 51,390€ (new price). With a battery capacity of 75 kWh and 351 hp, the car reaches a maximum speed of 233 km/h. Its acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h in 4.6 seconds. Its maximum range of 560 km according to WLTP is also impressive.

The third variant of the Tesla Model 3 is the Performance variant. Its new price is 55,390€ a little bit higher than the price of the Tesla Model 3 in the Maximum Range variant. The battery capacity of this model is also 75 kWh (like the Tesla Model 3-Maximum Range). This Tesla model has 487 hp and reaches a top speed of 261 km/h. Also, worth mentioning is its short acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h, which is 3.4 seconds. The stated maximum range according to WLTP of 530 km is also a remarkable value, even though it is slightly below that of the Tesla Model 3 in the Maximum Range variant. As already mentioned, the last two Tesla Model 3 variants have an all-wheel-drive with a dual motor. The Tesla all-wheel drive, therefore, uses two separately controlled electric motors. These two motors control the torque at the front and rear wheels separately. Since the control is digital, it is much more precise than with mechanical power transmission. It is also possible for the vehicle to be driven by just one motor. The advantage here is the fact that if one motor should fail, the second motor can be used.

Tesla has already installed over 14,000 Supercharger charging stations to charge Tesla cars worldwide. These superchargers mainly charge with 120 kW. However, a new update from Tesla now also enables charging with 150 kW. This means that the Tesla Model 3 can be charged even faster than before. Until the end of 2019, Tesla even wants to enable charging with up to 250 kW. This means that a range of 120 km is possible in just 5 minutes charging time. The superchargers are mainly CCS charging stations. On a Supercharger V2 with a charging capacity of 120 kilowatts, 30 minutes charging time is sufficient for a range of up to 280 km.

The Tesla wall charging station is recommended as a charging system for the home as it offers the highest charging speeds. The Tesla can be charged from home with 11 kW. In one hour charging time it is possible to achieve about 46 to 65 km range. The maximum output power of the Tesla wall charging station is 22 kW. A Tesla can also be charged at any type 2 universal charging station. However, it offers less power than the Tesla wall charging station. As mentioned earlier, the Model 3 has the CCS electric car charging standard for Europe. In addition to the superchargers, the Tesla Model 3 can also charge at the Ionity fast charging stations of German car manufacturers.

That the Tesla Model 3 is a very popular electric car with high sales figures becomes clear when one takes a closer look at the growth rates of new registrations in Europe from January to August 2019 and in the same period of the previous year 2018. In this year 2019 a growth of 85.1% was recorded. If the sales of the Tesla Model 3 are left out of this analysis, the growth rate of 2019 compared to 2018 is only less than 44%.

It is important to say that all the mentioned values can vary and do not represent fixed values. In addition, the purchase, but also the leasing of electric cars is subsidized by the federal government and the manufacturers. This environmental bonus, which exist since July 2016, was extended until the end of 2020 and amounts to around 4,000€ for electric cars. In addition, electric cars also receive tax incentives. For battery electric vehicles, which are registered for the first time until 31.12.2020, no motor vehicle tax is due for ten years.

Development of the e-car market

The development of the number of registrations of electric cars in Germany continues to be positive, even though the switch to electric cars is still a little bumpy. Germany is for the first time, the world's third-largest electric car market. In the first six months of 2019, the number of new registrations of electric cars increased from 34,000 to 48,000 compared to the same period in 2018. The number of new registrations of electric cars in the first half of 2019 is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Registration of new e-cars in the 1st half of 2019

The mentioned numbers of new registrations correspond to an increase of 41 percent. Out of the 48,000 electric cars, 31,000 are BEVs (battery electric vehicles) and 16,500 PHEVs (plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles). As it can be seen in Figure 3, Germany has a market share of 2.6 percent for electric cars. By contrast, the market for new registrations of diesel vehicles remains robust. This is demonstrated by the figures of 33 percent diesel share in the first half of 2019 and 32 percent in the same period of the previous year. In China, the demand for electric cars even increased by 52 percent. China thus remains the world's largest market for electric cars. The market share of electric cars increased therefrom 2.9 percent to 5.1 percent.

The USA ranks second place in the world's largest e-vehicle markets. Despite a decrease in sales of PHEVs and the overall market (-2.3%), new registrations increased by 20 percent to 149,000 e-vehicles (see Figure 2). The US company Tesla is certainly also responsible for these high figures. Tesla is responsible for 56 percent of e-vehicle sales.

Just short of Germany is Norway with 44,000 new registrations in the first six months of 2019 (see Figure 2). This represents an increase of 22 percent for Norway. In the first half of 2019, Norway achieved a market share of 56.2 percent for electric cars. This is a remarkably high figure.

France occupies the fifth place and was able to show an increase of 38 percent (comparison of 1st half of 2018 = 21,000 new registrations and 1st half of 2019 = 29,000 new registrations).

Great Britain ranks in sixth place. Here, the number of new registrations in the first half of 2019 was 27,000 e-cars. In the previous year, Great Britain had 29,000 new registrations in the same period. Sales of e-cars in the UK thus decreased by 7 percent in the first half of 2019.

The situation is different in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, an increase of 122% was recorded for new registrations of e-cars. As shown in Figure 2, the Netherlands recorded 20,000 new registrations in the first half of 2019, compared to only 9,000 in the same period last year. The market share increased from 3.6% to 8.9%.

To simplify matters, all the mentioned facts and numbers are shown graphically in the two figures (figures 2 & 3).

The data originates from a study conducted by the Center of Automotive Management (CAM) under the management of Stefan Bratzel.

###### Figure 3: Market share of e-cars in the 1st half of 2019

Now let's take a closer look at the development especially in Germany. As we mentioned earlier, the electric car market in Germany continues to grow. Figure 4 shows that the number of new registrations of electric vehicles has increased significantly in recent years. The rapid increase from 2016 to 2017 is particularly noteworthy. In 2016, the number of new registrations of electric cars amounted to 25,150 vehicles. In the following year (2017), Germany recorded more than double new registrations (54,490), or more precisely, slightly more than 30,000 new e-cars. After the last year (2018), the number of new registrations of e-cars was 67,500. Thus, the increase from 2017 to 2018, with almost 13,000 new registrations, was significantly lower than in the previous year. Nevertheless, the number of new registrations of e-cars continues to rise in Germany.

The continuation of the positive trend in Germany can be seen by the 48,000 new registrations in the first six months of 2019 mentioned above. At this time, about 71% of the number of new registrations in the previous year had already been reached. Should the second half of the year be similarly well, the number of new registrations will rise significantly higher than in the previous year. However, it is clear that a further increase is to be expected in 2019. Whether this development is progressing fast enough due to the strongly debated climate change can probably be argued about. However, it can be said that Germany, as the third-largest e-car market, is on the right track with respect to electric cars.

Why this can be assumed is also shown by the newly presented electric cars at the IAA 2019 in Frankfurt (International Motor Show), which will be introduced in the market in the future. Two of these new releases will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter.

Figure 4: New registrations of electric cars in GER from 2014-2019

But first we would like to take a look at the worldwide development of new registrations of e-cars. This development can be summed up as quite positive overall. Especially in recent years, the number of new registrations has increased significantly. In 2016, for example, 779,250 e-cars were newly registered worldwide. In 2017 there were 1,279.430 newly registered e-cars worldwide. This corresponds to an increase of around 64%. In 2018, the number of new registrations amounted to 2,242,720 e-vehicles (+72%). The increase from 2014 to 2015 has roughly doubled (+46%). An increase of 38% was recorded between 2015 and 2016. This means that the increase between 2014 and 2016 was significantly lower than in previous years, which is the reason for the overall positive trend.

###### Figure 5: New registrations of electric cars worldwide from 2014-2018

What can we expect in the future?

The Porsche Taycan

On 4th September 2019 Porsche presented its first all-electric sports car, the Porsche Taycan. This sports car comes on the market as the Taycan Turbo and Taycan Turbo S. Normally, electric cars work with a voltage of 400 volts. Porsche, in contrast, uses 800-volt technology for these models. Now, we will take a closer look at other performance values of the two Porsche models.

The fact that the Porsche Taycan Turbo is an extraordinary electric car, is already reflected in the price. The price is at least 152,136€. However, the first electric sports car from Porsche can also stand out through its performance. Its overboost power at Launch Control, for example, is up to 680 hp. Its acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h is 3.2 seconds and its top speed is 260 km/h. At the maximum combined range, Porsche specifies a range of 381 to 450 km according to WLTP. The Taycan Turbo has a net battery capacity of 83.7 kWh and combined power consumption of 26 kWh/100 km.

The Taycan Turbo S is the second variant in which Porsche offers its electric car. This variant cost at least 185,456€. Compared to the Taycan Turbo, the Taycan Turbo S has a higher overboost performance with Launch Control. It is up to 761 hp. Its top speed is also 260 km/h. With an acceleration time of 2.8 seconds from 0 to 100 km/h with Launch Control, the Taycan Turbo S shows further impressive values. The combined power consumption is 26.9 kWh/100 km. Porsche indicates a combined maximum range of 388 to 412 km according to WLTP for this Taycan model.

Now let’s have a look at the charging time. Both Porsche models can also impress with the charging performance thanks to their 800-volt-architecture. The charging performance here is higher than other electric cars. Both Taycan models can be charged with both AC and DC charging stations. The charging time for charging the Porsche from 0 to 100% is approximately 9 hours for alternating current (AC) with 11 kW. Within approximately 30 minutes the two Porsche models can be charged with direct current (DC) and 50 kW for up to 100 km (WLTP). The charging time for direct current (DC) with 270 kW for up to 100 km is approximately 5.5 minutes.

All in all, it can be said that the Porsche Taycan can show excellent performance values for an electric car, in both the Turbo and Turbo S version. The only disadvantage is certainly the high price for these models, which will most likely not make the Porsche Taycan a “mass car”. It is interesting to mention that the Porsche Taycan has already broken the record at the „Nordschleife” for electric cars. Test driver Lars Kern completed the 20.6 curvy kilometers with the Porsche Taycan in 7:42 minutes. Elon Musk previously held the record with his Tesla Model S P100D. It becomes clear that the Porsche Taycan is a serious competitor for Tesla.

The VW ID.3

Another electric car was presented by VW at this year's International Motor Show (IAA). The German car manufacturer presented its customers the VW ID.3, which is also the first model in the new ID family. The VW ID.3 is expected to be launched in June 2020. The fact that VW is hoping a lot from the ID.3 becomes clear as they go with this model series again with a "mass car" on the market and want to master the positive turn towards electric mobility successfully. The number of pre-orders for the ID.3 in May 2019 already showed that VW can succeed in this. At this time, VW already had more than 10,000 pre-bookings and this already after 24 hours. According to the German car manufacturer, more than 30,000 orders have already been received for the 1st edition.

But we will now take a closer look at the ID.3 and its technical data.

The VW ID.3 will be available in three different versions. The ID.3 is VW's first electric car which is based on the modular electrical construction kit MEB. All models will be available exclusively as rear-wheel drive. The basic version will cost about 30,000€. The battery has a net capacity of 45 kWh. This VW ID.3 model accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in approximately 8 seconds. Also, the values for the maximum range are 330 km not bad values for an electric car. The model, which is the first on the market, will be the 1st edition. This model has a 58 kWh battery and accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in about 8.5 seconds. Its maximum range is up to 420 km. The motor at the rear-wheels pushes the cars of the 1st edition with 204 hp. The propulsion is generally limited to 160 km/h. The price for the 1st Edition is about 40,000€. The 1st Edition is offered as basic configuration, 1st Plus, and 1st Max. In this article, we will not describe the individual equipment details of this 1st series in more detail, as these are only extended equipment features. Only when the 1st series is sold out then the freely configurable ID.3 models will come on the market, also with the smaller variant of 45 kWh (see above) or the larger variant with 77 kWh. The latter variant with 77 kWh batteries has a maximum range of 550 km (according to Volkswagen). It should be noted that if this stated maximum range of the car is approximately the same as the real maximum range, VW would bring an electric car on the market with extremely significant values. The acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h is about 7.5 seconds. This model will cost about 40,000€.

On fast-charging stations, the ID.3 can receive 100 kW in each variant. In the future, 125 kW should also be possible. In the case of charging stations with alternating current, however, the ID.3 can take up 11 kW, whereas the version with the smallest power rating can only take up 7.4 kW. Volkswagen states that with a charging time of 30 minutes, the ID.3 is sufficiently charged to reach a range of 290 km (fast-charging station).

Now we have to wait until the VW ID.3 comes on the market in June 2020. Then we will know more about the real performance of the car as well as the acceptance on the electric car market.

All technical data of the presented e-car models at a glance